Cervical Screening (Smear Tests)
Cervical screening is a method of preventing cervical cancer by detecting abnormal cells in the cervix (lower part of the womb). Cervical screening is not a test for cancer, but it is a test to check the health of the cervix.
Most women's test results show that everything is normal. But for one in 20 women, the test will show some changes in the cells of the cervix. Most of these changes will not lead to cervical cancer and the cells will go back to normal on their own. In some cases, the abnormal cells need to be treated to prevent them becoming a problem later.
NHS Choices - Cervical Screening
The why, when & how guide to cervical screening
This factsheet is for women who would like information about having a cervical smear test for screening. This means having the test when you don't have any symptoms.
Since September 2008 there has been a national programme to vaccinate girls aged 12-13 against human papilloma virus (HPV). There is also a three-year catch up campaign that will offer the HPV vaccine (also known as the cervical cancer jab) to 13-18 year old girls.
The programme is delivered largely through secondary schools, and consists of three injections that are given over a six-month period. In the UK, more than 1.4 million doses have been given since the vaccination programme started.
What is Human papilloma virus (HPV)?
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the name of a family of viruses that affect the skin and the moist membranes that line your body, such as those in your cervix, anus, mouth and throat. These membranes are called the mucosa.
There are more than 100 different types of HPV viruses, with about 40 types affecting the genital area. These are classed as high risk and low risk.
How you get HPV?
Types of HPV that affect the skin can be passed on by skin contact with an affected person. The types of HPV that affect the mouth and throat can be passed on through kissing. Genital HPV is usually spread through intimate, skin to skin, contact during sex. You can have the genital HPV virus for years and not have any sign of it.
How HPV can cause cervical cancer?
Most HPV infections are harmless or cause genital warts, however some types can cause cervical cancer. Most HPV infections clear up by themselves, but in some people the infection can last a long time. HPV infects the cells of the surface of the cervix where it can stay for many years without you knowing.
The HPV virus can damage these cells leading to changes in their appearance. Over time, these changes can develop into cervical cancer. The purpose of cervical screening (testing) is to detect these changes, which, if picked up early enough, can be treated to prevent cancer happening. If they are left untreated, cancer can develop and may lead to serious illness and death.
Cancer Research UK
HPV Facts and information
NHS Choices - HPV Vaccination
Why, how and when is the vaccination given and what are the side effects
This factsheet is for people who would like information about the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine.
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Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine. It is a very common problem, as a conservative estimate there are around 14 million people in the UK today with some form of bladder problem.
The main symptom of urinary incontinence is a loss of bladder control that causes you to pass urine when you do not mean to. However, when and how this happens varies depending on the type of urinary incontinence you have.
There are several types of urinary incontinence, but the most common are:
- stress incontinence, when the pelvic floor muscles are too weak to prevent urination, causing urine to leak when your bladder is under pressure, for example when you cough or laugh
- urge incontinence, when urine leaks at the same time or just after you feel an intense urge to pass urine
Urinary incontinence can be an uncomfortable and upsetting problem. Many people think that it is an inevitable part of ageing, but there are several forms of effective treatment, including:
- lifestyle changes, such as losing weight
- pelvic floor muscle training (exercising your pelvic floor muscles by squeezing them)
- bladder training, so you can wait longer between needing to urinate and passing urine
Studies from around the world suggest that conservative treatments, such as those above, can improve stress or mixed urinary incontinence in women by two-thirds.
If these treatments are not effective, several medications may be tried, and a growing number of different surgical techniques offer long-term results.
For more details please clickon the following links:
These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice